The Department offers two programs in Early Childhood Education and two programs in Childhood Education. A 36-42-credit program leads to an M.S.Ed. degree in Early Childhood Education (Birth-Grade 2) and a 42-48-credit program leads to an M.S.Ed. degree in Early Childhood Education: Integration of Bilingual Extension (Birth-Grade 2). Both lead to initial and professional certification in New York State and are designed for candidates who have received no previous certification in early childhood but may have certification in a related area, in keeping with the State's emphasis on dual certification. The Early Childhood programs serve students who (a) have qualified for initial certification in a related area of teacher education as undergraduates and are interested in dual certification with early childhood education at the professional level (advanced degree), or (b) have 12 or fewer undergraduate credits in teacher education and are interested in initial and professional certification in early childhood education. A 36-42-credit program leads to an M.S.Ed. Degree in Childhood Education (Grades 1-6). A 39-48-credit program leads to an M.S.Ed. in Childhood Education with Bilingual Extension (Grades 1-6). Both prepare teachers to work in integrated, inclusive, bilingual/multicultural settings. They offer initial and professional certification in New York State upon (a) completion of required coursework, (b) submission of passing scores on the certification examinations, and (c) successful completion of a supervised teaching internship in grades 1-6. The work of the Department is guided by a conceptual framework referred to as L.U.T.E. (Lehman Urban Teacher Education), which expresses the Department's commitment to developing competent, caring, and qualified educators for the nation's urban schools. Lehman gives teachers a focus on philosophy, trends, curriculum, methods, materials, and research in the field. The bilingual extension option adds the possibility of initial certification with an emphasis on the bilingual/bicultural child. Courses of study in both programs provide an educational model based on child development and child study principles, New York State Education Department standards and core curriculum, and National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (N.C.A.T.E.) standards as described by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (N.A.E.Y.C.).